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Flat Gaps Challenge Long Geologic Ages–by Ariel A. Roth
In spite of their proposed long ages of formation, the flat gaps show very little or no weathering or erosion weathering or erosion of the underlying layers. This clearly indicates a different mechanism is responsible for their formation and is what would be expected in the context of rapid deposition during the astonishing Genesis Flood described in the Bible.
Megabreccia and Catastrophe–by Arthur V. Chadwick
This article details examples of megabreccias of truly immense proportions, ranging from car-sized rocks to rocks a hundred kilometers in length. Such phenomena, spectacular as they seem, are not rare.
Catastrophism: Discussion of Its Current Status in Geology, and a Prediction–by Leonard R. Brand
To consider a much more rapid, catastrophic geological past challenges the naturalistic origin of life and of major categories of life forms. Do we want to know if that naturalistic interpretation is really correct or not? As scientists, are we open to consider what really happened in the past, or are we satisfied to limit our explanations to fit a pre-determined set of assumptions?
Catastrophic Earth Science: A Realistic Science–by Roberto E. Biaggi
A realistic science, not an actualistic one, is led through coherence and consistency of observation with hypothesis, even if it were an"outrageous hypothesis" such as a global planetary flood of the likes reported in ancient history.
How Do Plate Tectonics Relate to the Bible?–by Benjamin L. Clausen
Plate tectonic theory seems to be well-founded, but the science does not fit easily with a recent one-year flood. However, as is the case in many other areas of human investigation, when we study origins issues, we must trust the details to an all-wise God, since His “foolishness” is greater than our wisdom.
Mineralogy: A World of Law and Beauty–by Benjamin L. Clausen
This article provides an introduction to mineralogy and outline the different mineral categories, discusses some interesting features about minerals, describes the formation of minerals in different environments, and mentions some minerals referenced in the Bible.
The Precambrian: Part 1 of 3–by Benjamin L. Clausen
This first section of a 3 parts series on the Precambrian summarizes the standard model for formation of the Universe, Solar System and Earth, Moon, oceans, continents, and plate tectonics. Brief references to the Universe, Sun, and Moon are included because what happens beyond Earth sets the stage for what happens on Earth during the Precambrian and in the Genesis 1 account.
The Precambrian: Part 2 of 3–by Benjamin L. Clausen
This second part of a series on the Precambrian describes Precambrian rock exposures, as well as the atmosphere, climate, and Precambrian life. Many illustrative pictures are included, and design examples and creationist ideas are interspersed throughout.
The Precambrian: Part 3 of 3–by Benjamin L. Clausen
This third part of a series on the Precambrian provides two perspectives suggested by creationists on how to interpret this portion of the rock record.
The Cenozoic–by Raul Esperante
The term Cenozoic (or Cainozoic) means “recent life,” implying that the fossils encountered in these layers are more similar to modern species.
Alpine Ophiolites: Remnants of a Lost Ocean–by Ronny Nalin
In 1813, French geologist Alexandre Brongniart published a paper on the mineralogical classification of rocks where he introduced the new name “ophiolite” for a suite of dark rocks rich in the mineral serpentine. The name was coined from the Greek words for “snake” and “rock,” which seemed fitting, given the smooth dark green appearance of ophiolites, vaguely reminiscent of snake-skin.
The Geological Story Told by Iceland
Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean, slightly below the Arctic Circle. The island is situated on a mid-ocean ridge at the boundary between the North American plate and the Eurasian plate. In Iceland, we find evidence of horizontal movements, in which two plates spread apart as the crust dilates with intrusion of new magma. Iceland, however, is also associated with a mantle plume (a narrow stem of upwelling of magma from deep in the mantle) that has maintained volcanism high and vigorous.
What Is the Evidence for a Large Asteroid Impact at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) Boundary?–by Ronny Nalin
The hypothesis of a large meteorite impacting the surface of the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous was introduced almost four decades ago. In the ensuing years, the geologic community gathered a large body of data in support of this hypothesis, elevating it to the status of a universally accepted fact of Earth history. However, competing models and lively discussions are still unfolding over the dynamics and environmental consequences of this large impact.
Rapid Bedrock Incision by Water Stream Outburst: The Case of the Oroville Dam (California, USA)–by Ronny Nalin, Michael Kotulla
New observational data on the phenomenon of rapid bedrock erosion became recently available after the well documented events that affected the Oroville Dam in February 2017.
Turbidites–by Ariel A. Roth
This new concept indicates that some events in the past history of the earth may have proceeded much more rapidly than was previously believed. Published in Origins v. 2, n. 2.
The Puzzle of the Petrified Trees–by Harold G. Coffin
It is unwarranted to assume a priori, as in the past that all upright petrified trees had grown in the place where they are now found. The transport of trees and their deposition in an erect stance is not as unlikely or as rare as might be expected. Upright fossil trees within the geological column are compatible with a Flood model. Actually, when all factors are considered, a catastrophe involving water and many floating trees is a more satisfactory explanation for their origin.
A Biblical Approach to Geology–by Elaine Graham Kennedy
Beginning with the authority and historicity of Scripture, this paper outlines the importance of the biblical texts that create guidelines and boundaries for interpretation of nature in general and in the classroom. Application of this approach as a means of bolstering faith in the Christian classroom is presented, followed by evidences from the rock record that seem to me to be consistent with the biblical account of a worldwide flood.
Footprints in the Sands of Time–by Leonard R. Brand
Coconino Sandstone research has demonstrated how catastrophists can use their theory to develop specific hypotheses about a geologic feature (the Coconino Sandstone), and successfully carry out scientific research to test that hypothesis. This is one criteria that science used to determine the scientific value of any theory.
Faith and Science: Can They Coexist?–by Leonard R. Brand
Many would say scientists must leave all religious influences out of their scholarly pursuits, because to do otherwise would compromise the search for truth. However, I believe the God of the Bible understands the highest levels of scholarship, not just comforting inspirational themes.
Geological Records and Genesis Time Frame–by Leonard R. Brand
We have much study to do before we will truly understand how to fit together all the evidence into a coherent picture. But I as a Christian and a scientist find a three-step process helpful: trust God's communication to us in Scripture; study carefully and seek to recognize human ideas that we have incorrectly read in between the lines in Scripture; and follow up with careful scientific work.
Coal: How Did It Originate?–by Harold G. Coffin
The catastrophic burial of plant debris and its subsequent change to coal is not accepted by most coal geologists. However, the dominant "peat bog" theory presents problems that have remained unanswered for more than a hundred years. A Flood model for the formation of coal answers some of these problems and provides a scientifically reasonable explanation for the origin of the vast quantities of coal that exist worldwide.
Time, Faith, and Fossil Whales–by Raul Esperante
Currently evolutionary geology explains the fossil record as the result of slow processes and change occurring over long periods of time. However, an increasing number of rock formations and fossil occurrences previously interpreted within such an evolutionary framework must be reinterpreted as the result of rapid, or even catastrophic, processes operating on a different time scale.
When the Earth’s Crust Explodes–by Elaine Graham Kennedy
A ring of volcanic and earthquake activity is being felt around the rim of the Pacific Ocean. Volcanologists, with the help of modern technology, are able to monitor dormant and active volcanos in the Pacific Rim, identify indicators of increased activity that may lead to eruptions, and issue early warning to communities living along the Pacific Coast.
Catastrophism? Yes!–by Ariel A. Roth
Catastrophism and uniformitarianism have played a major role in the interpretation of the history of earth. The first assumes rapid, unusual, major geological events, while the second asserts with the contrary concept of small, slow, and prolonged changes.
Genesis and the Geologic Column–by Ariel A. Roth
The geological column is not something you can find in the rock layers that form the crust of the Earth. It is more like a map. It is a column-like representation of the general order of the rock layers over the surface of the Earth.
An Adventist Approach to Earth Origins–by Benjamin L. Clausen
Science/religion issues are important because they have to do with ultimate realities, with whether to "worship" the Creator or the creature (creation), with whether a supreme being is above the creation and can supernaturally intervene.
Features Found in Flood Basalts–by Nahor N. de Souza Jr.
This article will briefly explain the variety of conditions that influence the structures seen in flood basalt flows.
Implications of Paraconformities–by Ariel A. Roth
Paraconformities suggest that little time was involved in the deposition of the sedimentary layers, and these are the layers that harbor the fossil record.
The Santana Formation–by Harold G. Coffin
The unnatural mixture and the rapid stratigraphic shifts of fauna seem to require catastrophic water transport into the area. The large geographic extent precludes a local event. Creationists suggest that a world-wide flood could produce results as seen in the Santana Formation and is a better explanatory model.
The Geology of Mount Carmel, Israel–by Elaine Graham Kennedy
Most of us are familiar with the story of Elijah standing on a mountain top, calling down fire from heaven. The biblical account states that Elijah’s experience occurred on Mount Carmel.
What Does the Fossil Record Tell Us?–by Roberto E. Biaggi
There is broad agreement among Christian earth scientists who trust the biblical account that the general aspect of the fossil record is catastrophic—one of destruction and death.
Dinosaurs: Questions Christians Ask–by Elaine Graham Kennedy
How do dinosaurs fit into a biblical worldview?
Ecological Zonation: Theory, Problems and Perspectives–by Elaine Graham Kennedy
Ecological Zonation Theory suggests that the order of fossils in sedimentary basins reflects landscapes sequentially eroded by rising Flood waters.
Fossil Birds–by Timothy G. Standish
The known history of birds appears consistent with the idea that they were created. These new and spectacular avian fossils suggest is that the original creation produced a much greater variety of birds than previously imagined.
Baumgardner’s Modeling of Rapid Plate Tectonic Motion–by Benjamin L. Clausen
To model the motion of Earth's plates, Baumgardner uses a Fortran program he developed called TERRA that must be run on a supercomputer. It is one of four models in the world capable of modeling Earth in a global manner.
Catastrophism in the Pacific Northwest: A Geoscience Research Institute Field Guide–by Harold G. Coffin, Elaine Graham Kennedy
This article covers several features and areas that demonstrate the catastrophic processes that shaped the Northwestern US.
Radioisotope Age, Part I–by Robert H. Brown
Various examples adequately establish that a radioisotope age does not necessarily have a real-time significance. A relationship of a radioisotope age with real-time must be based on an interpretation.
Radioisotope Age, Part III: Time in Science and the Bible–by Benjamin L. Clausen
Any of the proposed resolutions to the conflict between radiometric dating and biblical chronology has problems. The pros and cons of each need to be considered.
Radioisotope Age, Part II: Genesis and Time: What Radiometric Dating Tells Us–by Clyde L. Webster Jr.
Radiometric dating is an interpretive science. The complex chemical and physical processes taking place within Earth's mantle and crust are neither completely known nor understood. This is especially true when the radioactive isotope parameters are considered.
Sand Dunes of the Sahara: How Should We Relate Scripture to Earth Science Questions?–by Ronny Nalin
A Christian scientist, while accepting the testimony of Scripture about God’s past intervention in Earth’s history, can still keep an open mind toward aspects of the geologic record that are unusual and different.
Can Rocks Teach Us Something About God?–by Ronny Nalin
Can we learn more about the qualities of the Creator through the study of geology?
Questions on the Methodology of Geology–by Albert E. Smith
A review of the book, The Structure of Geology. Geology differs from sciences such as physics because it is largely "retrodictive", inductive, and historical. Published in Origins v. 6, n. 2.
Origin and Development of Beaches–by Raul Esperante
How are beaches originated? How long do they take to form?
Radiometric Dating–by Benjamin L. Clausen
Radiometric dating has its uncertainties, but often seems to work well. At this point we don’t know how to relate its resulting ages with the Bible record, for we only know in part (I Cor 13:8-12). However, God’s ways are not our ways (Isa 55:8) and with God all things are possible (Mt 19:26; Lk 18:27).
Carbon-14 Dating Models and Experimental Implications–by Paul A. Giem
Eight categories of models for converting carbon-14 dates into real time are discussed. Six of these models are based on a creation as described in Genesis and a short age of life on earth. Published in Origins v. 24. n. 2.
Can Tree Rings Be Used to Calibrate Radiocarbon Dates?–by Robert H. Brown
Statistical analysis of the various dendrochronology master sequences that were published prior to 1985 indicates that the master sequence developed by Ferguson has unique auto-correlation features, and that its use is definitely questionable. Published in Origins v. 22, n. 1.
Compatibility of Biblical Chronology with C-14 Age–by Robert H. Brown
The relationship of carbon-14 dates with biblical chronology is improved by recognizing that c-14 concentrations have not yet reached equilibrium between the upper biosphere and the deep ocean. Published in Origins v. 21, n. 2.
Interpretation of Radiocarbon and Amino Acid Age Data–by Robert H. Brown, Clyde L. Webster Jr.
Dates calculated from radiocarbon and amino acid racemization show conflict. Analysis of the discrepancies and use of a radiocarbon conversion published earlier, some inferences are drawn regarding the cooling of the earth after the biblical flood. Published in Origins v. 18, n. 2.
Fresh Bread; Old Fossils–by Robert H. Brown
Biomolecules decompose rapidly enough they are not expected to last for millions of years. Discovery of biomolecules in fossils is difficult to reconcile with the purported ages of these fossils, and suggests the ages are much younger, as expected in a biblical worldview. Published in Origins v. 18, n. 2.
Correlation of C-14 Age with the Biblical Time Scale–by Robert H. Brown
This is an attempt to develop a methedology for converting carbon-14 ages into real time in a biblical context that fixes the date of the global flood at about 5,000 years ago. A table is provided of sample converted ages. Published in Origins v. 17, n. 2.
Implications of C-14 Age vs Depth Profile Characteristics–by Robert H. Brown
The available data on C-14 age profiles indicate that the characteristic relationship is nonlinear in a direction which suggests that the C-14/C-12 ratio was less in the past than it is now. Published in Origins v. 15, n. 1.
The Upper Limit of C-14 Age?–by Robert H. Brown
Some recent radiocarbon dates derived from sources assumed to be geologically very old give dates in the 40,000-year range. These relatively young dates may reflect the concentration of Carbon-14 in the antediluvian atmosphere. Published in Origins v. 15, n. 1.
Some Questions about Geochronology–by Ariel A. Roth
The geochronological time scale of thousands of millions of years is based mainly on radiometric dating. On the other hand, some other time-dependent processes change at rates which challenge generally accepted geochronology. Published in Origins v. 13, n. 2.
Amino Acid Dating–by Robert H. Brown
Most amino acids exist in two forms, commonly called "left" and "right." Living organisms use only "left" amino acids, but after death, the "left" amino acids begin changing to "right" forms, until there is an equal number of both. This suggests the possibility of using the amount of change as a measure of time, leading to the development of amino-acid dating. This dating of method does not confirm the results of other methods of dating. Published in Origins v. 12, n. 1.
How Solid is a Radioisotope Age of a Rock?–by Robert H. Brown
Radioisotope ages are calculated from ratios of certain atoms. The isotopic ratios can be precisely measured, but the calculation of age from that ratio involves assumptions that may vary depending on the philosophical orientation of the investigator. Published in Origins v. 10, n. 2.
Geo and Cosmic Chronology–by Robert H. Brown
The picture that emerges from all the data that relate to cosmic chronology appears to be one of dynamic physical processes operating over extended periods of time, during the last 4.5 billion years of which discrete entities of the Solar System have been in existence. This suggests the word "earth" in Genesis 1 may refer to the land surface of the planet, and not to the planet itself. Published in Origins v. 8, n. 1.
The Age Dating of Biological Materials–by Richard D. Tkachuck
Dates based on amino-acid racemization and uranium radioactive decay were quite different, with preference given to the radiometric dates. Published in Origins v. 8, n. 1.
The Interpretation of C-14 Dates–by Robert H. Brown
A number of factors could affect the relation of C-14 concentration to real time. The author discusses the effects on C-14 dates of cosmic ray intensity, geomagnetic field strength, water vapor concentration, and dilution by the biosphere carbon. Published in Origins v. 6, n. 1.
Radiometric Age and the Traditional Hebrew-Christian View of Time–by Robert H. Brown
Radiometric dates are subject to uncertainties due to the assumptions inherent in the method and to the effects of non-natural changes in the earth's crust on the third day of creation and during the biblical Flood. Published in Origins v. 4, n. 2.
The Impact of Tektites upon an Estimated 700,000 Year History of Deep-Sea Deposits–by Warren H. Johns
Tektites are formed from molten target rocks by an extraterrestrial impact. Australian tektites dated at about 700,000 years are found resting on soil dating less than 10,000 years old. This discrepancy is unresolved at present, and provides an opportunity for further research that could be very significant for the question of radiometric dating. Published in Origins v. 4, n. 2.
C-14 Age Profiles for Ancient Sediments and Peat Bogs–by Robert H. Brown
Claimed correlation of C-14 ages with depth is not a sound argument for the accuracy of C-14 dates because in the great majority of cases, a linear relationship between depth and C-14 concentration does not exist. Published in Origins v. 2, n. 1.
Carbon-14 Content of Fossil Carbon–by Paul A. Giem
This article reviews the theoretical basis for expecting the presence of carbon-14 in Pliocene to Cambrian carbon from certain creationist viewpoints, and for expecting its absence from a viewpoint proposing a long age of life on Earth. Published in Origins n. 51.
Time Dependency of Radioisotope Decay–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth. Published in Origins n. 52.
Recent Developments in near Eastern Chronology and Radiocarbon Dating–by Michael G. Hasel
This article provides a state-of-the-art appraisal of ancient Near Eastern chronologies in Mesopotamia and Egypt. It focuses on recent developments in both fields by assessing the current astronomical and historical bases for these chronologies and addressing the relative nature of chronology before the second millennium B.C. It documents the trend over the past sixty years to shorten the historical chronology of the Near East. Published in Origins n. 58.
Reactions–by Robert H. Brown, George T. Javor
Reaction to the editorial, Chicken Soup, and the article, Recent Developments in Near Eastern Chronology and Radiocarbon Dating, Self-organization and the Origin of Life. Even if biomolecules self-assembled into cellular organization, that would not produce life because life requires non-equilibrium chemical reactions. The editorial by Jim Gibson did not address this point. Correlation of carbon-14 dates with the biblical time scale favors the younger archaeological dates discussed in the article by Michael Hasel.
Literature reviews: Are Radioisotope Dating Methods Reliable?–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, The Mythology of Modern Dating Methods. Published in Origins v. 25, n. 2.
Dusty Evidence–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, Moondust and the Age of the Solar System. Published in Origins v. 20, n. 1.
An Age-Old Question–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, The Age of the Earth. Presents the standard interpretation of radioisotope data. Published in Origins v. 19, n. 2.
Testing Time–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, Absolute Age Determination. An authoritative description is provided of the methods of age-dating used to estimate the age of the earth. Published in Origins v. 17, n. 2.
More Than a Revision–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, Principles of Isotope Geology. An authoritative description of radioisotope dating and use of stable isotope ratios. Published in Origins v. 16, n. 1.
Working on the Flood–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, The Geology of the Flood. The author advocates an age for the earth that is much longer than the biblical chronology and much shorter than the naturalistic chronology, which will make the book's position unsatisfactory to most readers. Published in Origins v. 14, n. 2.
A New General Reference on Carbon-14 Age Dating–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective. Published in Origins v. 14, n. 1.
Annotations from the Literature
A collection of short commentaries on scientific papers published in 1991, covering topics such as Permian trees, molecular genetics, epigenetics, inheritance of paternal mtDNA, water and formation of petroleum, water in mantle rocks, impacts, Ordovician volcanism, molecular phylogenies of ratites, termites, cichlids and sabertooths, osteocalcin in dinosaur bones, fossil flowers, origin of life, Precambrian predation, stromatolites, Cambrian Explosion, quality of fossil record, rapid speciation, tree biogeography, Miocene ape, fossil dermopteran, Asian marsupial, dinosaurs, mammal-like reptile. Published in Origins v. 19, n. 2.
Young’s Old Earth–by Stephan F. Barnett
A review of the book, Christianity and the Age of the Earth. The book presents a biased viewpoint against recent creation, but does point out some serious challenges that confront recent creationists. Published in Origins v 10, n. 1.
A Reference on Radiometric Dating–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, Principles of Isotope Geology. This is an authoritative textbook on radioisotope dating that provides useful background information, regardless of philosophical persuasion. Published in Origins v. 6, n. 1.
Literature Reviews–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the article, Non-Poisson Distributions Observed During Counting of Certain Carbon-14-Labelled Organic (Sub)Mono-Layers.Small anomalies in counting C-14 disintegrations are probably explained by the experimental conditions and do not offer help for reducing the chronology based on C-14. Published in Origins v. 1, n. 2.
Climbing Up and Down Through the Fossil Record–by Ariel A. Roth
There is significant scientific data consistent with the biblical record of history, EZT represents one scientific theory that seems to explain historical data from the Bible and data from paleontology thought to challenge the Biblical record.
The Role of Catastrophes in Scientific Thinking–by Ariel A. Roth
The degree of importance of catastrophes for the geologic history of the earth has been the basis of a long scientific controversy that involves deep time questions.
Local Catastrophes, or a Worldwide Deluge?–by L. James Gibson
Several attempts have been made to explain the biblical flood as a local event, but none of them is consistent with the biblical description of the global flood. Published in Origins n. 52.
Unique Enigmatic Helium–by Robert H. Brown
Attempts to account for the He-4 in Earth's atmosphere on the basis of diffusion of radiogenic helium from the crust and thermal loss to outer space yield unreasonable models. Published in Origins v. 25, n. 2.
The Nature of Evidence, as Illustrated by Polonium Radiohalos–by Robert H. Brown
Polonium radiohalos are best explained by diffusion of by-products of radioactive decay of uranium and thorium, and not as evidence of supernatural activity. Published in Origins v. 24, n. 2.
False Fossils–by Ariel A. Roth
Examples of false fossils warn us to be cautious, especially when dealing with ill defined objects which, in spite of varied claims, may or may not be real fossils. Published in Origins v. 23, n. 2.
The Intrigue of the Questions about the Bridgewater “Fossil Forest,” Victoria, Australia–by Clyde L. Webster Jr.
Study of the Bridgewater "Fossil Forest" of Victoria, Australia shows calcification of plants of two distinct appearances. One group is more superficial and consists of branching structures that appear to have grown in place. At a lower level is a series of layers of larger, hollow stump-like structures for which a suitable explanation is not known. Published in Origins v. 23, n. 1.
Incomplete Ecosystems–by Ariel A. Roth
The fact that animals need plants poses a problem for the evolutionary model, since the record of past life sometimes reveals non-viable ecosystems. Published in Origins v. 21, n. 1.
An Alternative Explanation of Oceanic Magnetic Anomaly Patterns–by Norm Smith, Jane Smith
The oceanic patterns of magnetic anomalies are thought to be one significant evidence supporting the general notions of plate tectonics. Arguments are presented suggesting that important characteristics of the anomaly patterns could be due to the measurement process itself rather than being a direct reflection of geomagnetic reversals and plate movement. Published in Origins v. 20, n. 1.
Clastic Pipes and Dikes in Kodachrome Basin–by Ariel A. Roth
The pipes and dikes in Kodachrome Basin have come from the sedimentary layers below, and raise interesting questions regarding the amount of time involved in their formation. Published in Origins v. 19, n. 1.
The Implications of the Oklo Phenomenon on the Constancy of Radiometric Decay Rates–by Clyde L. Webster Jr.
The approach outlined in this paper suggests that the radiometric age assigned to the inorganic minerals associated with a fossil is more a reflection of the characteristics of the source of this inorganic material than an indication of the age of the fossil. Published in Origins v. 17, n. 2.
A Post-Flood Ice-Age Model Can Account for Quaternary Features–by Michael J. Oard
A model of an ice age caused by the Genesis flood is summarized. It proposes solutions to a number of ice-age problems. Published in Origins v. 17, n. 2.
A Catastrophe With an Impact–by L. James Gibson
Geologic features of the KT boundary present interesting evidence relating to possible causes of the mass extinction. The widespread existence of the boundary clay has been interpreted as evidence for a worldwide event at the boundary. Published in Origins v. 17, n. 1.
Reversal of Earth's Magnetic Field–by Robert H. Brown
A recent report that the earth's magnetic field must have reversed within a period of several months stimulates interest in the question of multiple magnetic reversals in the geological record and how much time is required for them to occur. Published in Origins v. 16, n. 2.
Expanding Earth?–by Bill Mundy
A few scientists advocate an expanding earth as an alternative to plate tectonics. Although there are some phenenomina not well explained by plate tectonics, the expanding earth theory is not a satisfactory replacement. Published in Origins v. 16, n. 2.
Those Gaps in the Sedimentary Layers–by Ariel A. Roth
The layers of sedimentary rock that we see over the surface of the earth usually appear as parallel features that are often spread over wide areas. What does not appear to the casual observer is that between some of these layers major portions of the geologic column are missing. Published in Origins v. 16, n. 2.
The Mexico Earthquake–by Ariel A. Roth
The earthquake in Mexico reminds us that catastrophes are a frequent, although unpredictable, experience. Geologists have emphasized the ordinary event, under the name uniformitarianism, but are increasingly accommodating to the reality of catastrophism. Published in Origins v. 12, n. 2.
Can Science and Religion Work Together?–by Leonard R. Brand
The practice of science does not depend on the beliefs a scientist has about origins. Creationists are able to conduct scientific research , and may even be aided by ideas that derive from the Bible. Conflicts may arise between science and religion, but this is an indication of the need for more study. Published in Origins v. 12, n. 2.
Are Millions of Years Required to Produce Biogenic Sediments in the Deep Ocean?–by Ariel A. Roth
The ocean floor is largely covered with a layer of sediments derived from the remnants of dead organisms, such as the "shells" of foraminifera. At present, these accumulate too slowly to account for the depth of sediments in a few thousand years. However, a catastrophic flood would provide difference conditions with very large amounts of nutrients and the opportunity for rapid growth of these organisms. More data are needed to analyze the situation more satisfactorily. Published in Origins v. 12, n. 1.
Rapid Erosion at Mount St. Helens–by Steven A. Austin
Geological processes are conventionally considered to be relatively constant, but erosion associated with the eruption of Mt. St. Helens is a reminder that rates of erosion may be much faster under catastrophic conditions. Published in Origins v. 11, n. 2.
NASA's Next Interplanetary Mission–by David H. Rhys
NASA is planning to send a satellite to study Jupiter and take measurements of its atmospheric composition. Published in Origins v. 11, n. 1.
The Little Ice Age–by Richard D. Tkachuck
A period of unusual cold in the Northern Hemisphere extended from about 1450 to around 1850, known as the Little Ice Age. The causes are not well understood, but could have included variation in solar output and/or volcanic activity. Published in Origins v. 10, n. 2.
Paleomagnetism II–by Ivan E. Rouse
Some rocks show magnetic properties that align with the present geomagnetic field, while others show a reverse alignment. This is taken to indicate that the earth's geomagnetic field has reversed many times during earth history. Patterns of magnetic alignment have been used to correlate geologic layers and to support the concept of plate tectonics. Much remains to be understood concerning the causes and rates of magnetic reversals. Published in Origins v. 10, n. 2.
Mount St. Helens and Spirit Lake–by Harold G. Coffin
Mount St. Helens, the once beautiful mountain with a blue forest-ringed lake at its feet, is now a shattered remnant of its former self and the lake is stark and foreboding. But this loss is partially compensated by the information this volcano is giving us, not least of which is a glimpse of what could have happened to many trees during the Genesis flood. Continuing research will undoubtedly enlarge and refine this picture. Published in Origins v. 10, n. 1.
Paleomagnetism I–by Ivan E. Rouse
This paper introduces the basics of magnetism, the magnetic field of the earth and how the rocks can record the ancient magnetic field of the earth. Published in Origins v. 10, n. 1.
The Tunguska Explosion of 1908–by Steven A. Austin, Mark W. Brazo
The cause of the 1908 Tunguska explosion in Russia remains somewhat mysterious. The most probable explanation is that a small comet exploded in the air and produced a blast wave that uprooted thousands of trees and killed many reindeer. Published in Origins v. 9, n. 2.
Precambrian and Paleozoic Glaciation?–by W. W. Hughes
The effects of glaciers are well-dccumented in modern and Pleistocene sediments. Some Precambrian and Paleozoic sediments show some features similar to those of modern glaciation, but there is some controversy over whether the features are the result of glaciers, submarine landslides, lahars, turbidity currents, etc. Published in Origins v. 6, n. 1.
How Rapidly Can Wood Petrify?–by Robert H. Brown
Experimental evidence shows that wood can petrify in a few years or less when immersed in mineral-rich water. Published in Origins v. 5, n. 2.
Megabreccias: Evidence for Catastrophism–by Arthur V. Chadwick
The presence of various kinds of megabreccias in the geologic column, showing in some cases the transport of extremely large clasts, indicates energy levels on a scale that staggers our imagination. Published in Origins v. 5, n. 1.
Clastic Dikes–by Ariel A. Roth
Clastic dikes form when unconsolidated sediments are forced upward into overlying sediments by the weight of the accumulating sediments. Some clastic dikes intrude into layers supposedly many millions of years younger, indicating that the underlying sediments remained unconsolidated for unexpectedly long periods of alleged time. Such features challenge the conventional geologic time scale. Published in Origins v. 4, n. 1.
Anomalous Ages for Meteorite Impacts and Tektites–by Warren H. Johns
Major tektite falls in Australia in strata as young as 5700 years old according to radiocarbon dating have called in question both the fission-track and the K-Ar methods of dating which assign these identical tektites an age of about 700,000 years. Published in Origins v. 3, n. 2.
Geological Society of America Meeting–by Kurt P. Wise, Arthur V. Chadwick
A report of the 2000 meeting of the Geological Society of America in Reno, Nevada. Published in Origins n. 51.
Examining Radiohalos (Review of Creation’s Tiny Mystery)–by Ariel A. Roth, L. James Gibson, Harold G. Coffin, Robert H. Brown, Clyde L. Webster Jr.
This review examines Robert Gentry’s efforts to defend his model of creation built on the study or radiohaloes. Published in Origins v. 15, n. 1.
Wholistic Geology: Geology Before, During, and After the Biblical Flood–by Leonard R. Brand
Traditional flood geology theory interprets much or all of the Phanerozoic part of the geologic column as formed during the one year of the biblical flood. Some geological and paleontological data are, in my opinion, difficult to explain in this theory. Wholistic geology endeavors to explain more of the earth science data while remaining true to a literal understanding of biblical creation and a global flood. Published in Origins, n. 61.
The Yellowstone Fossil “Forests"–by Harold G. Coffin
Research in the Yellowstone "fossil forests" includes study of the sediments, purported paleosoils, and paleoecology. Together, these indicate the "forests" are not in situ, but have been transported. Comparison with the effects of the eruption of Mt St Helens and the floating log raft in Spirit Lake provide an example of a possible mechanism for emplacement of the fossil trees in Yellowstone. Published in Origins v. 24, n. 1.
The Grand Staircase: a Case Study in Scientific Thinking from a Biblical Worldview–by Leonard R. Brand
ARTICLE. In Utah and northern Arizona is a unique geological landscape feature, called the Grand Staircase. Imagine a staircase with each step a thousand feet or more high, and many miles wide. We will discuss hypotheses in regard to how this feature was formed. Published in Origins, n. 65.
The Enigmatic Geologic Column–by L. James Gibson
EDITORIAL The geological column presents features that are difficult to explain, either from a secular or biblical viewpoint. Because the question is historical, scientific experiments are very limited in application to this question. More study is needed. Published in Origins, n. 61.
The Miocene/Pleistocene Contact in the Columbia Basin–by Harold G. Coffin
The purpose of this research was to examine the contact for evidence of what is thought (14 million years of erosion) to have elapsed between the laying down of the last flow of most of the Columbia River Basalts and the deposition of the wind-blown glacial silts of the Palouse soil. Published in Origins n. 53.
A Note on the Pre-Flood/Flood Boundary in the Grand Canyon–by Kurt P. Wise, Andrew Snelling
The Sixtymile Formation in the Grand Canyon is proposed as a possible geologic layer tmarking the beginning of the Genesis flood. Published in Origins n. 58.
The Canyon of Canyons–by Robert H. Brown
A review of the book, Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe. Published in Origins v. 21, n. 2.
Challenging the Creed: Doubts About Plate Tectonics?–by L. James Gibson
A review of the book, New Concepts in Plate Tectonics. The theogy of plate tectonics is questioned on geological grounds. Published in Origins v. 21, n. 1.
A Venture in Unorthodoxy–by Bill Mundy
A review of the book, The Expanding Earth. A prominent scientist has written a book advocating an expanding earth rather than conventional plate tectonics theory. The idea has not been accepted by the scientific community. Published in Origins v. 12, n. 1.
Geomagnetic Intensity Decay: The Fit of the Data–by Robert H. Brown
A review of Chapters 3 and 4 in the book, Scientists Confront Creationism. Creationism is roundly criticized for poor arguments. Published in Origins v. 11, n. 2.
The El Niño Event–by Richard D. Tkachuck
El Niño is an interannual catastrophic event caused by massive amounts of warm water flowing in from the mid-Pacific instead of the more normal northerly warm current. These events have a 6-8 year cycle, Published in Origins v 10, n. 1.
A New Journal on Catastrophism–by Ariel A. Roth
A new journal, Catastrophist Geology, has begun publication. Published in Origins v. 4, n. 2.
Geological Changes and Time–by Ariel A. Roth
A review of two articles: On the Survival of Paleoforms, and The Tempo of Geomorphic Change. The scientific data of both papers indicate that much greater caution is warranted in approaching questions regarding the length of time involved in the past history of the earth. Published in Origins v. 3, n. 2.
Old Traditions on Trial–by Ariel A. Roth
A review of the book, The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record. The geologic record can be described as long periods of relative calm punctuated by brief catastrophic events. Numerous geologic features can be traced over large portions of the earth's surface. Published in Origins v. 2, n. 2.
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