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The snowy peak of the Cervino. The Alps are a majestic mountain chain that records a history of continental collision and mountain rising. Glaciers and rivers have sculpted many valleys and contributed to the beauty of this natural landscape. Photo taken from Blue Lake, Cervinia-Breuil, Aosta, Italy.
A confluence is the point at which two streams flowing from different directions unite. This photo shows a confluence of two streams, approximately equal in size and width, draining the basement complex in north-central Nigeria.
Land o' Lakes viewpoint, Grand Mesa --- This mesa located at 10,000 feet elevation is one of the largest flat-topped mountains in the world covering 50 square miles. Hard Tertiary basalts resisted erosion to form the flat mesa.
Harpers Corner, Dinosaur National Monument --- At the floor of these canyons of the Colorado Plateau run the Green and Yampa Rivers.
Rwanda is known as the country of a thousand hills. These hills are mostly made of Precambrian rocks. However, the valleys between these hills are filled with alluvial deposits that provide a fertile soil for cultivation. Photo taken in the Kigali district.
An example of transverse and longitudinal valleys from the Bolivian Andes, Parque Nacional Carrasco, reflecting structural control on geomorphology.
IGNEOUS - EXTRUSIVE: Basalt cliffs, Grand Mesa --- Tertiary basalt flowed down a valley and hardened. Later erosion formed these cliffs where the hard basalt caps the mesa. Grand Mesa is an inverted valley -- what was low has now become high.
El Peñón de Guatapé is a granitic monolith that rises about 200 m above the surrounding landscape, in the Antioquia region of NW Colombia. These isolated landforms are also known as "inselbergs" and are typical of granitic rocks in tropical regions.
Badlands, Wasatch Formation, Rt.13 north of Rifle --- The sandstone has been eroded into badlands and teepee-shaped mounds.